Category Archives: Design

Racism, bandit attacks, bravery: Art celebrates Australia’s Chinese history

The following article was written by Siobhan Hegarty for The Spirit of Things and published on the ABC website: 24 Oct 2017, 11:28am. Photos by Fiona Pepper.

Campfire detail: A detail image of the artwork Campsite, by Hugh Foster.


Fourteen thousand Chinese men trekked nearly 400km from the South Australian coast to Victoria’s goldfields in 1857.With them was a young woman.

Her true name remains a mystery, but official records show that year a lone woman came to Robe in South Australia from the Guangdong Province.

Now, the story of her arrival is the starting point for a new exhibition in Ararat by a group of Australian artists — which aims to honour the Chinese heritage of the Victorian goldfields.

Hope: From Robe to Riches tells the story of a fictional woman named Mei Ling — as imagined by artist Joanne Sullivan and her anthropologist mother Norma, a specialist in China and South-East Asia.

Joanne and Norma Sullivan are the masterminds behind the exhibition.


Inspired by a visit to Ararat — Australia’s only town founded by Chinese immigrants — Dr Sullivan and her mother embarked on a week-long painting trip along the famed gold mining route.During their journey, she says local librarians, researchers and authors told them about an enigmatic arrival in Robe.

“They all explained repeatedly that there was this unknown, unnamed woman who was in the books but disappeared off their records after she left Robe,” Dr Sullivan says.

“That sparked my imagination and I thought I would like the character in our exhibition, our story, to be [about] that person. From that point on, all the research we did verified things that happened along the way, and I’ve written those into the story.”

The story of Mei Ling

Mei Ling with pony. The woman, depicted in this artwork by Gwendoline Krumins, came to Australia in search of her brother.

The Sullivans’ exhibition, captured not only through the artworks, but a series of time-lapse YouTube videos, weaves a story about an extraordinary woman who crosses the ocean and walks hundreds of kilometres.

Facing racism, bandit attacks and worse, Mei Ling comes to Australia in search of her brother — who had left China for the goldfields less than a year earlier, but was feared dead after he stopped replying to letters.

Like many of her countrymen, Mei Ling lands in the South Australian port town of Robe to avoid the 10 pound tax placed upon Chinese arrivals in Victoria.

This policy, put in place in 1855, was part of Victoria’s Chinese Immigration Act and a precursor to the White Australia policy.

In this aspect of the story, there is no fiction.

What the Chinese miners’ would have seen on their arrival at Robe, SA, as imagined by artist Joanne Sullivan.

While Robe-bound ships evaded Victoria’s hefty tax, travellers were still forced to pay a one pound fee for a rowboat to shore.

Those unable or unwilling to pay this unforeseen cost attempted to swim to shore but, under the weight of belongings attached to bamboo poles, many drowned.

In the Sullivans’ story, Mei Ling is chaperoned by extended family members and people from her hometown on her journey by sea. Able to afford the rowboat, she makes it to shore safely, arriving in April 1857.

Sea Scene: This artwork by Gwendoline Krumins depicts the new arrivals’ dangerous transfer to shore at Robe.

Then, with the assistance of townspeople and Chinese elders, she finds a seat on a bullock dray headed for the town of Penola.

But when she crosses the Victorian border her good fortune comes to an end.

Dangers at play

The journey from Robe to the Victorian goldfields proved treacherous — in fact and fiction — for various reasons.

Anti-Chinese sentiments ran high, and by 1857 heightened tensions led to several violent incidents, including the Buckland River clash — in which Chinese miners were trampled, robbed, beaten and expelled from a camp in their thousands.

Searching for shelter, an artwork by Norma Sullivan.

Bandits were another concern for travellers, particularly those walking alone or in small groups. To thwart attacks, Chinese miners would form large packs, often in the hundreds, and walk in single file towards their destination.

An attack by bandits near the border leaves Mei Ling on the verge of death and separated from her clan. She is nursed to health by local settlers and, upon recommencing her journey, is joined by a 14-year-old Chinese boy and the son of a settler.

They continue towards Canton Lead in Ararat, where Chinese miners had uncovered rich goldfields.

News of that discovery heightened the resentment among European and American prospectors towards Chinese miners.

An artwork by Gwendoline Krumins, depicting Chinese men panning for gold.

By May 1857, there had been several violent attacks against the Chinese.

In the Sullivans’ story, among this bedlam, Mei Ling finds her brother — alive but beaten unconscious while trying to protect a significant amount of gold.

After recovering, her brother stays on to dig in the goldfields, before joining his uncle in Melbourne to work at a furniture business. Mei Ling, meanwhile, returns to China with half of the gold her brother found, as per her parents’ wishes.

Plans to honour Chinese miners

Aptly, the Sullivans’ exhibition will be on display at Gum San Chinese Heritage Centre in Ararat from September 24, 2017 for six weeks, tying in with the town’s 160th birthday.

David Chen is one of the artists in taking part in Hope: From Robe to Riches.

Featuring works from six Victorian artists — David Chen, Gwendoline Krumins, Hugh Foster and Clive Sinclair, along with Joanne and Norma — the series visually chronicles Mei Ling’s journey.

It’s impossible to know exactly how many Chinese gold seekers died on their journey to find fortunes in Australia.

As well as shedding light on their relatively unknown stories, Dr Sullivan says the exhibition aims to give back to the local community.

“In the cemetery at Ararat there’s a large new section for the Chinese miners who died along the way, whose bodies have been exhumed and relocated to that cemetery,” she explains.

“They have no tombstones or headstones at this point. We want to raise awareness of that so that funds can come in to pay for those headstones.”

Find out more:

Speech at the Launch of the Hope: From Robe to Riches Art Exhibition

Transcript of speech by Dr Joanne Sullivan at the launch of the Hope: From Robe to Riches Art Exhibition held at the Gum San Chinese Heritage Centre in Ararat, on Sunday 24 September, 2017.

Welcome to the Hope: From Robe to Riches Art Exhibition. This exhibition tells the story of the journey of Mei Ling a 19 year old Chinese woman who traveled from Southern China to the goldfields of Victoria in Australia in 1857.

Each painting in the exhibition depicts a scene of significance for Mei Ling and the 14,000 others who walked 440 kilometers across an unforgiving, alien Australian landscape to find a better life.

If you have watched the video series on YouTube you will know that it is also a story about the founding of Ararat and death on the Goldfields.

Sadly, today there are 300 graves of people like Ping and Mei Ling in the Ararat General Cemetery that do not have headstones.

Introducing the first Everlasting PaintStory

We have created this PaintStory to tell this hidden part of Victorian history and to raise awareness of what it is like to be a stranger in a strange land.

My name is Joanne Sullivan and I am the Director or Stellar Ideas,  the creator of Everlasting PaintStories.

A PaintStory is a story told in paintings. The artists work to a script. And the script evolves as we interact with people in the field.

A core part of this PaintStory process is the artist being willing to paint en plein air—to go out and paint in the wild—and to share their work as it progresses, on social media.

Going out and sharing; creates the feedback loop that allows us to find and develop the stories worth telling.

People know that artists are good at looking, but in this type of project an artist must also be good at listening and responding to feedback.

Today you are seeing a milestone in a story that began in May last year. This is not the end of this story. We will add to it over time, send the exhibition around Australia and eventually to China. And in this way it will become everlasting.

Continue reading Speech at the Launch of the Hope: From Robe to Riches Art Exhibition

The birth of PaintStories

I was having lunch with my friend Sally when I asked her what she thought I should call my timelapse painting movies. Sally said “So, they are like stories in paint. Or paint stories.” Well that seemed immediately perfect. So I asked if she would mind me using that term (PaintStories) to describe my time lapse movies from now on. She said yes. That was Wednesday 7 December 2016. The birth of the idea. Thank you Sally.

What is a PaintStory?

The concept is evolving, but in it’s most basic form a PaintStory is a little video of me filming myself painting and telling a story of significance to the people in my community.

Here are two examples.

Alone or as part of a series—PaintStories are a purposeful way for artists to take part in the new economy. A PaintStory can illuminate issues of communal concern. And the level of engagement they inspire is amazing.

In the Hope: From Robe to Riches PaintStory I have created a number of episodes (including the two above), interviews with artists and videos of the actual paintings in the exhibition. I combine these with posts, instagram imagery and videos of me explaining how things work in the background. All of this content lives in the Hope: From Robe to Riches domain and tells the story of that project.

Painting with a purpose

A perfect storm is forming for artists who have an interest in storytelling. Introducing the PaintStory as a social media content strategy.

PAINTING—TECHNOLOGY—ANTHROPOLOGY are colliding to give brilliant new opportunities.

Traditionally people come to painting as a hobby. It gives them a way to deal with the stress of life and is a great pleasure. Over time their skills improve and the subject matter matures.

The first public exhibition is a milestone in an artist’s career and often signifies their intention to become professional.

To sell a painting affirms the value of the artist’s skill, but also of the ideas they are trying to express in their work.

As a professional, an artist is concerned with what people will buy, but like happiness this cannot be aimed for directly. Instead, an artist will seek to build their reputation (what they stand for or are trying to achieve artistically) rather than what they produce.

The “lucky” ones get discovered. Their name is made and they can set their own price. This is the artist’s holy grale.

In the last 10 years artists are using the web and social media to increase their exposure and enhance their chances of being discovered. But with everyone doing the same thing, the artist’s story has to be pretty special to stand out.

Artists want to be discovered specifically by the art industry (investors, critics, galleries, agents). But this involves a lot more than engaging an agent, holding exhibitions or attending gala industry events. People who invest in and promote art want to know it has long term cultural value. Meaning: this artwork will be valued by society in the future.

Many artists work in isolation, so they can only tell their own personal story. Sometimes solo artists like these may be lucky if—due to their heritage and circumstances—their story is of great interest to many others. But this is rarely the case, so discovery is unlikely and the solo artist feels disheartened and trapped in obscurity. From this perspective, the risk of becoming a professional artist is immense.

Meanwhile, a lot is going on in the world. These are interesting times. By looking out into the world, like an anthropologist, bigger stories than our own are available, that will be of long term interest to the people of the future.

Finding these types of human stories can inspire an artist in their work and give their work cultural relevance. Giving the artist a fast track to reputation building and discovery.

A story expressed in painted pictures is profoundly touching. No other medium has the power to instantly transport the viewer into another world of experience. This is why art is valued above all other cultural artefacts.

Unlike all other media a painting provides the most personal experience. Every time you view a painting it has new meaning, based upon your maturing understanding of life. Hence, the meaning of the painting  changes with the viewer. With every view. And finding meaning in the painting can change the viewer.

There is a fledgling movement of artists taking video cameras with them to film as they paint en plein air. Here we are transported to a place of importance to this artist while they try to capture the meaning in their work. This is anthropology in action.

Thoughts on Painting by Artist Tom Hughes in the UK.

The more sophisticated artists describe their thinking as they work, so that viewers can know what they are trying to capture. The light, the subject, the challenges.

In a world of counterfeits this is an excellent way of claiming ownership and proving authenticity for the artist and for the collector.

But the real value is in the story. Why did the artist go to that place? Why is it significant?

Right now, not many artists are asking this question. They continue to go to places that are spectacular, beautiful, interesting, but they can go so much further.

Beyond the fortunes of the artist this type of artistic production provides real value to the community. Through this medium the community that the artist has entered has a chance to tell it’s story. To raise its issues and record its memories. This is why the artist will be embraced and promoted. But the artist has to be objective and able to hear what is being told.

And then to paint it into history.

Hope: From Robe to Riches Art Exhibition

In 2016 a group of Victorian artists did this. They went to places along the route taken by the Chinese miners who walked 440 km from Robe to the goldfields of Victoria in 1857. These artists looked into landscapes that have been painted a thousand times before and found new meaning. Within 6 months an exhibition was created and that collection will travel around the world.

PaintStory: Landing in Robe
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Finally, in terms of financial value: artworks such as these (that communicate such powerful human stories) form part of the cultural world that people will pay to see. Often they will travel to view the work which is enhancing art tourism. And having seen it will want to own it—then the artist may finally reap their reward.

Here is the birth of the PaintStory. A production that incorporates video, showing the painting in progress and telling the associated human story of interest. If released online these offerings may greatly assist the artist of the future to advance their artistic career.

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Stellar content offerings

For a mobile audience it is critical to think clearly, fill your offering with value and structure it so that it is easy to find, scan and digest. 


What will people value in my offering?

You are an expert. No doubt you have something of value to offer people online. The trick is to package that offering in a way that helps your audience to resolve everyday predicaments and to significantly optimize their quality of life, while they are on the move. These are the Stellar Ideas.

It helps to imagine that you are lobbing an expert idea into someone’s predicament:—They have got their phone (check); They are having the sort of trouble that your can help with (check); They have your offering (KAPOW problem solved!).

How grateful will they be? How will they feel about further engagement with you?

How do I package my content to be valuable for a mobile audience?

It always helps to start with a post. Whatever form your offering eventually takes (video, podcast, infographic) being able to clearly convey your idea in writing will help you to think clearly about what you have to offer.

8 tips for writing (thinking) clearly

Focus on a single valuable idea in your offering. Unpack what your want to say and leave things out that cannot be expressed in 300-500 words. (These can become separate, related offerings.)

  1. Choose a nice place to write
  2. Pick a time when your brain is fresh
  3. Plan what you are going to write before you start
  4. Think of questions your audience might ask
  5. Work in 20 minute spurts (with rests in between)
  6. Use:
  7. Give your brain a night’s sleep before you publish
  8. Get a buddy to proof read it

How do I structure the offering?

Start with your conclusion!

In journalism this method of starting with your conclusion is called the Inverted Pyramid style.

Here are some principles for structuring your content to really help people when they are using mobile devices:

  • Start with your conclusion
  • Provide a summary (take away) at the top
  • Provide an image to illustrate the key concept
  • Provide a call to action at the end
  • Organize everything in between in order of importance
  • Phrase headings as questions
  • Front load paragraphs
  • Limit to 300-500 words (5 minutes)

How does this help people?

  • Your audience can scan
  • Your audience can stop reading at any point in time and still come away with the main point
  • Starting with your conclusion boosts Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Having built a bond with my audience, what can I offer them next?

If someone reads to the bottom of your offering, they have invested 5 minutes of their time and may be ready to invest more. Examples of a “call to action” are:

  • Link to my related offering
  • Register for my seminar
  • Enrol in my online course

It all comes down to content, comparatively speaking

I have been noticing how much YAMMER and PANIC there is in online communication lately. Everybody is spamming and broadcasting to everybody, trying to find work, trying to make a living, trying to participate. So what is the alternative?


My sister tells the story of the medieval marketplace. Imagine you are there, say Venice. As you approach the market you can hear the great hum of human activity. It gets louder until, as you approach the gate, you can hear hundreds, possibly thousands, of voices crying out. Peddlers with their barrows line the road, the walls, and crowd the entrance. The noise is deafening. Everyone is shouting. At you! Everybody wants to sell you something. It’s utterly overwhelming. But you knew it would be. You came anyway.

You push past the screaming traders at the gates. You came for 3 perfect apples. You can see apples in some of the barrows here at the gates, but you walk on. You feel sure the best apples are somewhere in the interior. You’d like to check, before you buy.

Being completely new to this market you decide to sit down at the cafe in the centre and just get your bearings. You relax, recover from the jostling at the entrance, and just watch the world go by.

You are looking out for people going by with excellent apples in their possession. Or a trustworthy-looking local. Or even the guy running the cafe might help.

A few clues from people like these and you discover the best apple traders. There are only two. You compare their wares, their prices and how much you like either one—and then you buy your 3 apples. And know they really are the best in town.

This is the way markets work. Have always worked. Online markets are just the same. The web is a massive online market. These days everyone is clammering to be at the gate (the top of Google search) and shouting over everyone else (their brilliant 60 second pitch, photo, animation, video, slogan, widespread social media campaign that blasts out 20 times a day).

And they are surprised when they don’t have a queue lining up at their store.

ULTIMATELY, it all comes down to content. And how valuable it is, comparatively speaking.

Mobilize Your Business to Achieve Your Main Goal

As a small (probably solo) business owner you can no longer afford to be locked into static business practices or environments. Your market, staff, competition are on the move: how ready are you to compete? This article describes how to use the mobile internet, apps and mobile-first content to free yourself so you can concentrate on what really matters.


Why am I mobilizing?

Being mobile is an essential human quality of life requirement. 

Mobilizing your business will give you a more balanced life, which for highly effective people is the main goal.

“To live a more balanced existence, you have to recognize that not doing everything that comes along is okay. There’s no need to overextend yourself. All it takes is realizing that it’s all right to say no when necessary and then focus on your highest priorities.” Stephen Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.

Bringing a balance to my business is exactly the same as bringing a balance to my life. In this sense—I am my business. My business is not a separate entity that will control me or get out of my control. So I have the power to say no, but what to?

What really matters?

Having control of my business matters!

I want to be free of restraint so that I can move in my intended direction. Not static. Not stuck. So what things am I going to mobilize (which have kept me stuck until this point):

  • My online presence (website and social media): so that they exclusively support me as I mobilize my business. Exclusively means—that this is their only purpose. They are no longer used for marketing purposes, efficiency purposes, administrative purposes, and so on. [These are traditional ways of using these technologies—which have caused me to become stuck.]
  • So, from now on I am building mobile-first content and nothing more.
  • My customers (through mCommerce and mLearning): so that they can be mobile. When they interact with me they will not be stuck with traditional ways of doing business. In this way I am bringing real value to their lives by helping them to also mobilize their business.
  • My resources (apps and cloud services): so that I can run my business while I am on the move.

What do I have to do to make this happen?

It’s more about what you have to stop doing: wasting time doing things that are not helping you to mobilize your business and your important ideas.

Do nothing that is not helping you to mobilize your business. Say “no”. Stop overextending yourself. Stop writing unnecessary content, posting random blogs, tweeting, filming videos, updating web pages and website designs, running around after clients, searching for new models and answers.

Stop all random publishing, responding and working online.

From now on think mobile-first. Ask “how will this help me to mobilize my business?”. Prioritize those activities that have the greatest mobilizing impact. Those which:

  • provide you with direct and immediate income;
  • clinch a deal (not just bring you leads);
  • help you to marshal, bring together, prepare (power, force, wealth, resources, networks, content) for action;
  • are responsive and capable of moving or being moved readily

Beware of traditions. Those activities, mindsets and people who want to keep doing it the old way. These are now brakes on mobility.

Modularlize everything you do so that you invest your energy wisely and this investment can serve multiple purposes and can be mobilized.

For related articles see:

Finding Your Global Niche Audience

How to find your target audience in the global ideas economy. People who will pay for your important ideas and who you will love to work with.

As you set out to stake your claim in the global ideas economy you will have to find an audience for your important ideas.

Your ideas are important to you because of your rich experience in life. This is also what makes them unique and valuable to others.  As a first principle, you should strive to develop a confident, authentic voice. Using clear English and address one key idea at a time. Tell people what you actually think!

 Who will be interested in my ideas?

Expertise is a continuum. In any area of human knowledge, skill or experience there will always be people greater and lesser than you.  The key is to target those who are just behind you on the continuum for your important idea. These are the people who will understand your idea with minimal explanation. They will value your idea because they have traversed the same path as you (metaphorically speaking) and are just behind you in their capabilities.


Tip: The more recent this experience, the more relevant it will be to your target audience.  So you do not have to cast your mind too far back to find ideas of value and people for whom they will be valuable.

Who would I love to work with?

Within your target audience think of the ones you would love to work with. The ones that you admire; are doing worthwhile things; have a good energy; are making a difference. Talk to them.

You do not have to set out to persuade. If you find yourself trying to convince your audience of the value of your idea, then you are probably focusing on people who are not already sold on your idea. Stop writing. Put someone you would love to work with in the frame. Start writing again.

Who will invest in my offering?

People value and will pay for content that helps them to optimize their quality of life. The more unpleasant, unhealthy, or embarrassing the situation (predicament) people find themselves in, the greater the urge to use available resources such as content offerings to restore quality of life. So it is a good idea to think of predicaments where the people in your target audience will REALLY NEED your offering.

For related articles see:

Top 10 commercial reasons to mobilize your consultancy (content/IP)

The mobile platform is a powerful referral and engagement platform. When someone forwards your content on to a contact using their mobile device, it is perceived as a personal referral and endorsement of both the content and of you as the content provider.

With this in mind, the top 10 commercial reasons for mobilizing your consultancy (content/IP) are:

  1. It helps bring in clients. Mobile content offerings have far greater reach and capture potential than all other digital marketing mechanisms
  2. Turning your content/IP into mobile content offerings; structuring them into courses; then placing them online, helps to reduce the time you spend delivering repetitive material (because you and your clients can access it when and where ever you like)
  3. Providing opportunities to interact with your content/IP while on the move, enhances your engagement with your key clients
  4. Valuable content like this attracts traffic which raises your online profile
  5. People pay for content on their phones, so your mobile content offerings are a potential stream of passive income
  6. The process of mobilizing your consultancy helps you to recognize, test and package your IP for delivery to a global niche audience
  7. Engagement with your mobile content offerings can be monitored, giving you an invaluable, dynamic source of information about customer activity which you can use to continually monitor and improve your content and your consulting services
  8. Building mobile content offerings and delivering them from your own website is a low cost and investment approach—you build and release modules as required (as you can afford to)
  9. It’s low risk—you can stop any time you like. Which gives you total control over your content and allows you to grow as fast and as big as you like, and
  10. It’s very flexible—you can reuse modules and arrange them into different packages, which increases the Return on Investment (ROI) for any given module.

For related articles see:

A Conceptual Framework for Competitive Mobile Content Provision

 How can content providers understand then tailor content for delivery to users of mobile devices in ever-changing life contexts? The following abstract describes my PhD study and dissertation.

Visit The University of Melbourne Digital Repository to access the dissertation.


Content provision via mobile technology platforms (such as smart mobile phones and tablet computers) raises interesting practical and research challenges for the field of Information Systems (IS). Much of the IS literature about mobile content provision is concerned with the ‘user experience’, with a particular focus on technology. In contrast, there is limited academic work looking at the ‘content’ component of the mobile experience.

Quite often in information system development the content is seen as separate to the system and does not receive as much consideration. This study is specifically interested in how providers (such as individuals, consultants, small business, newspapers, media companies and universities) can understand and then tailor content for delivery to users of mobile devices in ever-changing life contexts.

This study proposes that it is the content that users come to the mobile platform to consume and which gives the experience much of its value and meaning. It is therefore through the development of appealing content offerings that content providers stand their best chance of establishing a competitive advantage on the mobile platform.

In the mobile sphere content providers are observed focusing their efforts upon the development of micro information systems (in the form of mobile content offerings) which contain everything required by, and of value to the mobile technology user in the moment of use. These offerings are modular in nature (self-sufficient, but able to be associated with other systems) and geared towards helping users to optimize their quality of life.

This study puts forward a theoretical framework for research into mobile content provision which describes and supports this modular, content-driven approach. This framework is both descriptive (detailing what providers are actually doing in relation to mobile content provision) and prescriptive, because the observations are taken further and a set of concepts, constructs and principles defined, to inform future IS research and to aid strategic decision-making about competitive content offering development and provision on the mobile platform.

In particular, current IS theoretical frameworks and models, based on utility and user satisfaction, are no longer adequate ways for providers, researchers or developers to conceive the needs and expectations of mobile information system users. Instead, qualitative evidence shows that providers expect people to value and with mobile content offerings that help them to resolve everyday predicaments and contribute to their quality of life.

This study therefore proposes the Continuous Quality of Life Optimization Principle as a better way to understand the complex, deeply personal, mobile content experience — and the predicament and bondability constructs as more effective ways to understand and then tailor content for delivery to users of mobile devices in ever-changing life contexts.

Visit The University of Melbourne Digital Repository to access the dissertation.